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Allergy | Symptoms, Causes, Types, Tests, Treatment

Allergy | Symptoms, Causes, Types, Tests, Treatment

Table of content

1. Allergy- An  Overview

Metaphorically, an allergy means strong dislike or aversion (for instance, he is allergic to smoking and alcohol).

In medical science, an allergy is the response of the Immune system (it includes the organs and processes of the body that provide resistance to infection and toxins. Organs usually include the thymus/ bone marrow/ lymph nodes) to a foreign substance that is not typically harmful to the body. These foreign substances are called allergens. The allergens mainly include food/ pollen/ fur/ dust, to which the body, wholly or partly, becomes hypersensitive.

In an allergic reaction, the body’s immune system creates antibodies to fight off foreign substances (dust/ mites/ pollen/ medicine, etc.) that are usually harmless. However, sometimes the body’s immune system identifies some materials as harmful. Even though they are not. When this occurs, it is called an ‘allergic reaction.’ The allergens can be anything stretching from food and medication to environments. When the body comes in contact with these allergens in some way or another. It can cause mild symptoms (like skin irritation/ watery eyes/ sneezing, etc.). In extreme conditions, allergy can lead to Anaphylaxis (it is a severe life-threatening allergic reaction. The most common anaphylactic reactions occur to foods/ insect stings /medications/ latex). The allergic reaction can also take a critical turn, such as respiratory problems and cardiac arrest.

So far as the time for allergic reaction is concerned. The result can occur after several hours (mainly if the allergen causes a reaction after it has been eaten). In sporadic cases, reactions develop after 24 hours. Traumatically, anaphylaxis is a sudden allergic reaction within a few minutes of exposure.

1. Allergy Symptoms

Allergy Symptoms

The most common symptoms of allergies are stated below.

  • Cough difficulty: It involves chronic, forced, and dry cough. Sometimes blood comes out with a cough.
  • Breathing difficulty: Allergy mostly causes breathing difficulty. In some cases, a breathing problem may be a symptom of lung or heart disease, or it may be the outcome of obesity.
  • Irregular breathing: Irregular or labored breathing is abnormal respiration caused by a lung health problem.
  • Wheezing: Wheezing is high pitched whistling sound made while one breathes. It is distinctly heard when the patient exhales. But in some cases, it can be heard even when one inhales. Wheezing is a severe breathing problem that requires immediate diagnosis and treatment
  • Itchy throat: Itchy throat can also be a symptom of viral or bacterial infection.
  • Sore throat: It is a pain, scratchiness, and irritation of the throat that often worsens the condition while swallowing food. The most common cause of sore throat (pharyngitis) is a viral infection, such as cold or flu  which resolves of its own
  • Swelling of throat and tongue: In food allergies and bee-sting allergies, the tongue, as well as the throat, can swell. But it is less common for the tongue to expand (as compared to the throat).
  • Difficulty in swallowing: It is also called dysphasia.  It is usually a sign of a problem with the throat ( or esophagus- the muscular tube that moves foods and liquids from the back of the mouth to the stomach)
  • Abdominal pain: The pain occurs between the chest and the pelvic region (lower abdominal cavity). The pain can be crampy/ achy/ dull /sharp/ intermittent.
  • Hives: Hives occurring in the hands are itchy, red, raised welts on the surface of the skin. An allergic reaction usually causes them.
  • Skin bump: It can range from very small and painless to a large and painful condition. Bumps are generally accompanied by redness, swelling, and irritation, which is a chronic skin disorder.
  • Itchy eyes: It occurs mainly due to allergy to cold.
  • Watery eyes: This refers to over secretion of tears usually caused by the irritation or inflammation of the eye surface. The factors creating the condition are allergies, eyelashes, or eyelid problems.      
  • Conjunctivitis: It is the inflammation or swelling of conjunctive (the transparent layer of the tissue that lines the inner surface of the eyelid and covers the white part of the eye). A virus or bacteria can cause conjunctivitis.
  • Runny nose: Allergies, as well as various irritants, cause the runny nose in which case nasal tissue is inflamed.
  • Postnasal drip: In this condition, extra mucus drains down the throat, which causes tickling, coughing, and soreness.
  • Rhinitis: It is also known as coryza, which is an irritation and inflammation of the mucous membrane inside the nose. The condition occurs along with a stuffy and runny nose as well as sneezing and postnasal drip. The inflammation occurs on account of allergens (in addition to viruses, bacteria, and irritants).
  • Rashes: It is also known as dermatitis. It implies the inflammation of the skin or eczema- a chronic skin disorder that includes itchy/ scaly rashes
  • Mold: It is a fungus that grows in the form of multi-cellular filaments called hyphae. 
  • Nausea: It is a feeling of sickness and discomfort with an inclination to vomit.

2. Allergy Causes

Allergy Causes

The common causes of allergies are food/insect stings/medications. Additionally, environmental and genetic factors, to a large extent, contribute to the allergic attack.

Environmental factors include:

  • soil
  • dust
  • pollen
  • climate
  • natural vegetation
  • landform and form
  • air pollution etc.

And genetic factors include small inherited genes often acting together with environmental factors.

3. Types of allergies

Types of allergies

Allergies occurring in different parts of the human body. The details are highlighted below.

Allergy in the eyes

3.1.1) What Are Eye Allergies?

The eyes are the most essential and valuable of all human sense organs. So, any discomfort and trouble caused to the eye will be a shock to the whole body. The indispensability of the eye is well explained in its metaphorical use. (For instance, every child is the apple of the eye, i.e., the dearest to its parents).

Eye allergy develops when the body’s immune system becomes sensitized and overreacts to something in the environment (called an allergen). If the eyes itch/ burn/ become red, then it is a condition of eye allergy. This is called allergic conjunctivitis.

3.1.2) Symptoms of eye allergies

Symptoms include :

  • Red irritated eyes
  • Itching/ tears or runny eyes
  • Swollen eyelids
  • Soreness
  • Burning pain
  • Sensitivity to light

It may range from mild irritation to severe inflammation impairing vision

3.1.3) Common Causes of Eye Allergies

  • Outdoor allergens (Pollen from grass/ trees/ weeds).
  • Indoor allergens (pet dander/ dust mite/ mold)
  • Irritants (Smokes from cigarettes and running vehicles/ perfume/ diesel exhaust)

3.1.4) Diagnostic test for eye allergy

If symptoms of eye allergy persist or medications bring no relief, then the doctor will review medical history and make an interrogation over the symptoms. Conduct some tests to ascertain the root cause of eye allergy. The tests include:

Examination with a microscope can detect the swollen blood vessels on the surface of the eyes.

Certain types of white blood cells can be tested that appear on the part of the eyes affected by allergies. This involves gently scraping conjunctivitis (the inner lining of the eyelid)

3.1.5) Eye allergy treatment and management

The 1st and the best approach for treatment is to prevent particularly the seasonal. Perennial form of eye allergy through avoiding the allergens that mainly trigger the symptoms.

Managing conditions (outdoor)
  • It is essential to stay indoors as long as possible when pollen pollution are at their peaks (especially during the mid-morning and early evening when the wind is blowing pollen around).        
  • It needs to avoid using window fans that can draw pollens and molds into the house.
  • And It is suitable for eye health to wear sunglasses when going out of the home. And it is equally important to wash face/ eyes/ hands properly as well as rinse the mouth after reaching home.
Managing conditions (indoor)
  • It needs to keep the windows closed and use air conditioning (both at home and in the car). Further, the air-conditioning equipment needs to be regularly cleaned.
  • It is essential to reduce exposure to dust mites (especially in the bedroom). Ana, it is also crucial to use the cover for the pillows/ comforters/ mattresses and wash the bedding frequently using hot water (at least 100 degrees F)
  • It is essential to limit the exposure to mold /keep the humidity low at home between  30%- 50%. Additionally, the bath/ kitchen/basement should be regularly cleaned.
  • The floor needs to be cleaned daily with a coarse damp rug (rather than applying dry sweeping)
Managing exposure to pets
  • Properly washing your hands (especially before meal/ breakfast) after patting the domestic birds/ animals.
  • The pet animal/ bird should be kept out of the house as far as possible.
  • It needs to close the air ducts connecting the bedroom if the bedroom is fitted with forced air control/ cooling/ heating types of equipment.

3.1.6) Eye allergy types

Although eye allergy is a type under the broadhead ‘Allergy,’ but again, eye allergy  can  be  further sub-categorized as follows:

SAC (Seasonal Allergy Conjunctivitis)

It is considered the most common type of eye allergy. Patients experience symptoms (such as itching/ redness/ burning/sneezing/ nasal congestion/ clear watery discharge attended with hay fever and other seasonal allergies) during late winter, spring, summer, or fall depending on the type of plant protection. Patients suffering from SAC  may have chronic dark circles (known as allergy shiners) beneath the eye. The eyelids may be puffy, inflamed, and besides bright light may be annoying and irritating. Over and above, the itching may be so severe that patients may rub the eyes frequently, making the symptoms worse and infectious.

PAC (Perennial Allergy Conjunctivitis)

The PAC occurs throughout the year (as the name implies). Symptoms may be the same as the SAC but tend to be milder.

VKC (Vernal Allergy Conjunctivitis)

It is a more severe eye allergy than SAC or PAC.  It may occur throughout the year.

Symptoms may worsen depending on the seasonal variations. About 75% of patients already had either eczema or asthma. Symptoms include itching/ significant tearing/ production of the mucus/ photophobia (aversion to light) /feeling of sensation in the eye as if some foreign body is present.

Caution: If left untreated, it may impair vision.

AKC (Atopic Kerato Conjunctivitis)

The allergy primarily affects older people (mostly having a history of allergy dermatitis). Symptoms are severe itching/ burning /redness and more importantly, significant production and deposit of thick mucus, such that after getting up from sleep in the morning, it becomes very difficult to open the eyes as the eyelids are stuck together.

Caution: If left untreated, it may result in scarring of the cornea and its delicate membrane

CAC (Contact Allergy Conjunctivitis)

The eye allergy may result from the irritation caused by the contact lenses. Or by the proteins from the tears that bind to the surface of the glass. Symptoms include redness/ itching/ mucus discharge and more importantly, contact lens discomfort.

GPC (Giant  Papillary Conjunctivitis)

GPC is associated with wiring contact lenses. It is a severe form of eye allergy in which case individual fluid sacs/papules form in the upper lining of the inner eyelid. Symptoms include itching/ tearing/mucus discharge/ poor tolerance to wearing contact lenses/ foreign body sensation/ blurred vision (it is the loss of sharpness of eyesight making the objects appear out of focus and hazy. The primary causes of blurred vision are refractive errors., nearsightedness or farsightedness. Blurred vision can affect one or both the eyes)

Allergy in hands

Seasonal allergies and skin irritants include hand and foot eczema (pompholyx) showing tiny itchy fluids. And blisters on the hands/ fingers/ often the toes and the feet.

As an effective treatment and preventive measure, the alcohol-based cleaner should be used which is less irritant than water and soap and  more useful to clean as well as disinfect the hands (preferably, before and after meals)

Allergy in lips

In addition to adequately aligned upper front teeth, healthy lips are indispensable to gift a pretty smile, which becomes complicated when the lips are swollen in the wake of an allergy reaction. Lips become swollen if fluids build up in the skin tissue or if there is underlying inflammation. This causes them to appear larger (than usual).

Swollen lips have a range of causes that vary from average to potentially dangerous conditions. A host of factors triggers allergies that cause swollen lips:

  • Environmental factors (pollen/ mold/ dust/ pet dander which are tiny particles of skin shed by pet animals)
  • Food allergy (it is triggered by mainly  milk and egg)
  • Angioedema (It is a short-term condition that happens as an adverse side effect of medication that often affects the lips).
  • Antihistamine (It helps treat most of the minor allergic reactions regardless of the causes. It is a type of medicine used to manage the typical allergy symptoms) is the only treatment procedure to cure allergy in lips.

Conclusively, swelling in the lips is not a severe condition that vanishes on its own within a few days. However, if swelling is painful, then it needs to consult a physician.

Allergy in the throat

Allergy is the prime cause of sore throat. It is often induced by postnasal drip. Sore throat is the result of exposure to an allergen and occurs when congestion in the sinuses drains down the throat.

Common sore throat symptoms include:
  • sneezing
  • runny nose
  • itchy nose
  • coughing
  • scratchy throat
  • itchy and watery eyes
The treatment procedure includes the following rules:
  • Warm liquids (such as hot tea) can be a comfort to sore throat
  • Gargling with warm salt water can also help and soothe.
  • Staying away from caffeinated beverages

Allergy in face

A sweet smiling face means a happy, peaceful life. So a look without having any injury or allergic reaction is always desirable.

Allergic reactions that affect the face can lead to raised welts in addition to swollen lips and watery eyes. Beauty products and hay fever, also known as allergic rhinitis often cause this allergic reaction.

It is an allergic condition with symptoms:
  • chronic cold
  • runny and stuffy nose
  • sneezing
  • itchy and watery eyes
Treatment procedure includes:
  • To soothe at once the allergic reaction experienced by using anti-inflammatory cream (containing 0.5% hydrocortisone)
  • To cool the affected area on the face by applying ice or cold compressor as soon as the allergic reaction is detected.
  • And To stay hydrated by increasing water and fluid intake
  • To apply a warm compressor afterward to promote the movement of fluid build-up.
  • To take more rest

Allergy in blood

If the patient’s immune system attacks the red blood cells (after receiving blood given by the donor), then it is a case of a Hemolytic reaction. In such a case, one may have an allergic reaction to blood transfusion as well. This can include hives and itching.

4. Allergy in babies

Allergy in babies

4.1) Meaning, cause, and symptoms of baby allergy

When the babies have an allergic condition, it is the result of an inappropriate response by the immune system. Symptoms mostly arrive with a runny nose. Additional symptoms include:

  • watery eyes
  • cough
  • nasal congestion
  • sneezing
  • rash
  • upset stomach which is especially short-lived.

Skin allergies in babies occur when the baby's skin is irritated by some allergen or when the baby produces the chemical histamine (It is a chemical naturally produced by the human body and is found in certain foods) triggered by an allergen. The irritants maybe even dirty drapes/ drool/ soaps/ detergents, which can also cause an allergic reaction in the babies.

It needs to be mentioned that catching a cold in the babies and allergies are not the same. The cold usually subsides within 7- 10 days, but allergies do not.

4.2) Diagnostic tests for baby allergy

Percutaneous  (or prick test) and  intradermal  (a thin needle is used to inject the diluted allergen into the skin) are two types of  skin tests that apply a diluted allergen to a prick in the top layer of the skin

4.3) Treatment of baby allergy

Using a  hypoallergenic moisturizer (after the baby’s bath can help to prevent dry skin.  Further, moisturizer also provides a barrier to help protect the skin from irritants. Additionally, using 1% hydrocortisone cream can treat skin rashes relating to eczema or other allergic reactions.

5. Allergy during pregnancy

Allergy during pregnancy

If the patient already has an allergy, then pregnancy can make the situation worse. The pregnant woman must consult a physician before taking the drug to treat allergies. However, for safe and effective treatment, certain antihistamines and steroid nasal sprays can be used.

Conclusively, skin changes during pregnancy are a regular occurrence. And hives during pregnancy are less common. However, hives may occur during pregnancy on account of foods/ insect bites/medicines/ chemicals.

6. Allergy during winter

Allergy during winter

During the dry cold winter season, people may experience varying allergy symptoms on hand, such as

  • Redness
  • Flaking
  • Blister
  • Cracking
  • Chronic skin thickening

Additionally, pain and itching may also occur. These skin irritation during cold, dry winters occur on different parts of the body, such as:

  • Palms
  • Toes
  • Feet in addition to hands.

During the winter season, another form of eczema that hits the hands/ palms/ fingers is dyshidrotic eczema (pompholyx) which is related to allergies  as well as stress

As an effective treatment and preventive measure against allergy irritation on hand skin, the alcohol-based cleaner should be used, which is less irritant than water and soap and more useful to disinfect the hand.

Read more: What Causes Allergy Season in Virginia?

7. Food allergy

Food allergy

A food allergy is a condition in which certain foods trigger an abnormal immune response. Veritably, food intolerances are often mistaken for food allergies. However, food intolerances never involve the immune system. As such, food intolerance may impact the quality of life. But it is never life-threatening.

7.1) Symptoms of food allergy

Many symptoms that are usually experienced during food allergy include:

  • Swelling of the tongue/ mouth/ face.
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Low blood pressure
  • Itchy rash (Itchy rashes and scaling are skin disorders. It is usually caused by pressure on the skin)
  • Hives
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting

7.2) Cause of food allergy

Food allergy is caused by the immune system wrongly recognizing some of the proteins in foods as harmful when the body launches a range of protective measures including releasing the chemicals (like histamine, which causes inflammation).

For patients having a food allergy, a small amount of specific food protein can trigger an alarming allergic reaction.

7.3) Categories of food allergic reaction

7.3.1) Ig E (Immunoglobulin E) mediated food allergic reaction

Symptoms resulting from the body’s immune system make the antibody known as  Ig E (Immunoglobulin E), which reacts to certain foods. And is found most common among infants and children. The foods causing allergic reaction  mainly include: egg/ milk/ tree nut/ peanut/ soy/ wheat with symptoms : skin rash/ itching/ rash/ hives/ swelling of lips, tongue, throat/ shortness of breath/ trouble in breathing/ whizzing/ stomach pain/ vomiting/ diarrhea. Sometimes, allergy symptoms are mild, and in some other times, they are severe.

7.3.2) Non- Ig E (Immunoglobulin E)) mediated food allergic reaction

Most symptoms of non-Ig E (Immunoglobulin E)) involve the digestive tract that invites vomiting and diarrhea. The symptoms of no- Ig E may take a longer time to develop and lasts longer than Ig E (Immunoglobulin E) mediated food allergic reaction system.

Sometimes, an allergic reaction to food allergens occurs three days after taking the food. In such a type of allergic reaction, medication is not needed. Usually, the best procedure to prevent and fight such kind of allergic reaction is to avoid and stay away from the foods that cause an allergic reaction.

7.4) Most common food allergies

7.4.1) Cow milk

An allergy to cow milk is the most common food allergy among babies and young children. About  2%- 3% of babies and toddlers are affected.  However, about 90% of the children will outgrow the condition when they are three years or over. The cow milk allergy can occur in the case of both Ig E (Immunoglobulin E) mediated food allergic reaction conditions. And non-Ig E (Immunoglobulin E) mediated food allergic reaction condition. Reaction swoops on the children with Ig E allergy within  5- 30 minutes of ingesting cow milk. Symptoms  experienced  include swelling /rashes /hives/vomiting and in rare cases anaphylaxis (it is a severe life-threatening allergic reaction. The most common anaphylactic allergic reactions occur in foods/ insect  stings/ medications/ latex)

A non-Ig E medicated food allergic reaction usually has more gut-based symptoms (like vomiting/ constipation/diarrhea as well as inflammation of gut wall) and additionally, it can be challenging to diagnose. Because sometimes the symptoms can suggest an intolerance and there is no valid blood test for this.

Conclusively,  cow milk allergy mostly affects children under three years. Secondly, an accurate and useful diagnosis of cow milk allergy implies that the only option is to stay away from cow milk as well as milk products (foods and drinks).

7.4.2) Egg

Egg allergy is the 2nd most common cause of allergy in children (followed by milk). However, 68% of the children having egg allergies will outgrow the problem by the time they attain 16 years.  Egg allergy symptoms include digestive problems causing stomach ache/ skin reaction (hives or rash) / respiratory difficulty) /anaphylaxis (which is rare)

Conclusively, It is possible to be allergic to egg white (but not to egg yolk) in some cases. Again in some other cases, just the reverse may occur (one is allergic to egg yolk, but not to egg white). Because protein content in egg yolk and egg white are different.

Secondly, most of the allergies produced by the eggs are on account of egg white. This is why the egg white allergy is found more common. Thirdly, like other allergies, the only treatment for egg allergy is to take egg-free diets.

7.4.3) Tree Nut

Some of the nuts and seeds can cause tree nut allergies. The tree nuts include: Brazil nut/ Almonds/ cashews/ macadamia nuts/ pistachios/ pine nuts/ walnuts. So, patients with peanut allergies will also be allergic to tree nut products.

Caution: It is essential to avoid all types of tree nuts, even though only 1 or 2 types cause allergy. Because, unlike other allergies, a tree nut allergy is a lifelong condition and is responsible for more than 50% of anaphylaxis deaths.

The patients always need to carry Epipen. It is potentially a life-saving device that allows those with tree nut allergies to inject themselves with a shot of adrenaline, which is a naturally occurring hormone.

7.4.4) Peanut

Like tree nuts, peanut allergies also can invite severe and fatal allergic reactions. The actual cause of peanut allergy is still unknown. But the patients had a family history of peanut allergy at higher risk.

Diagnosis involves: recording the patient’s personal and family history/ skin prick test/ blood test/ identifying the food challenges. Emergency and effective treatments include avoiding the peanut as well as the peanut products.

7.4.5) Wheat

The allergic response occurs due to one of the proteins found in the wheat. It is most common among children (below 10 years). Like other allergies  symptoms include: digestive disorder/ vomiting/ hives/ rashes/ anaphylaxis in severe cases.

A wheat allergy is often diagnosed with skin prick testing.  Avoiding wheat products is the only treatment option.

7.4.6) Soy

Soy allergy affects about 0.4% of children ( age below three years). A protein triggers the allergy in soybean. Symptoms  Include: itchy tingly mouth/ runny nose/ rash/ asthma/ breathing difficulty/ anaphylaxis in rare cases.

Conclusively, the babies who are allergic to cow milk,  are also allergic to soy.  Like other allergies, the best treatment option is complete avoidance.

7.4.7) Shellfish

The allergy is caused by the body attacking proteins from the shrimp. And mollusk families of fish known as shellfish (examples are: shrimp/ prawn/ Crayfish/ lobster/ scallop). Allergy symptoms  usually arrive quickly and are similar to other Ig E food allergies (like vomiting/ diarrhea/stomach ache)

Conclusively, shellfish allergy symptoms do not resolve over time. So, the most effective treatment is to exclude shellfish from the diet list. Surprisingly,  even the vapors coming out from the cooking shellfish can trigger and aggravate the allergic reaction of those who have already allergies.

7.4.8) Fish

Fish allergy is found common among 2% of adults. Like a shellfish allergy, fish allergy can cause a potentially fatal allergic reaction. Primary symptoms include diarrhea/ vomiting/ anaphylaxis in rare cases.

Conclusively, since shellfish and fish with fins don’t carry the same protein, so patients who are allergic to shellfish, may not be allergic to fish.

8. Allergy tests

Allergy tests

8.1) Why are allergy tests needed?

The allergy tests are various exams performed by a trained allergy specialist to detect whether the body has an allergic reaction to a known substance. These are skin tests/ blood tests/ elimination tests. Most allergy tests are performed in the hospital.

8.2) How to get prepared for the allergy test

Everything should be disclosed to the allergist about the time when the allergy symptoms were experienced first. Because the symptoms usually disappear in the 1st 24 to 48 hours. So everything should be reported to the specialist well in time, including the medicines if taken and since when and how long. The medicines that need to be stopped 5 days before the test include: Alavert/ Allegra/ Cetrizine/ Claritin/ Clarinex/ Desloratadine/ Doxepin/ Fexofenadine. As regards the drug Antihistamine, it should be discontinued 3- 7 days before the test.

8.3)  Types of allergy tests

8.3.1) Allergy skin test :

In general, allergy skin tests are reliable for diagnosing allergies to airborne substances. A skin test may help diagnose food allergies.

Conclusively, since food allergies are sophisticated, additional tests also may be needed.

8.3.2) Allergy blood test

The blood test measures the presence of Ig E (Immunoglobin  E) antibody, which is strongly linked to the body’s allergy response. The accepted normal range of Ig E is (150-300 ul /ml). Previously, the test was called  RAST (Radio-allergy sorbent test) which uses radioactivity. But the new test does not. RAST is a blood test to detect specific Ig E antibodies to determine the substance (causing the allergic reaction). On the other hand, an Allergy skin test  determines the allergy (by the response of a person’s skin to different substances)

An allergy blood test detects and measures the amount of allergen-specific antibodies in the blood. The antibodies control the cells in the body to release certain chemicals. These chemicals are those that cause allergy symptoms Conclusively,

Accuracy of allergy skin test seldom invites false-negative results (which implies erroneous conclusions indicating that the “patient is not allergic to a food, even though he is”)

  • A positive test (i.e., the result shows how the patient is allergic to food) is not always accurate
  • Blood tests are not often done as they are more expensive and less sensitive (as compared to skin tests)
  • Allergy skin tests are more reliable for diagnosing allergies to airborne substances (such as pollen/ pet dander/ dust mites)

So, it is a skin test, which is the best test to diagnose food allergies.

9. Allergies treatment

Allergies treatment

Immunotherapy: The allergist (the specialist)  provides immunotherapy (it is a type of therapy that prevents or treats the disease with the substance which stimulates the immune system)  in the form of allergy shots/ oral tablets/allergy drops. These are considered disease-modifying treatments. Veritably, they don’t cure allergies. But they can significantly reduce sensitivity to allergies and thus reduce allergy response.

Antihistamine: The drug prevents symptoms (such as hives) by blocking histamine receptors so that the body does not react to allergens.

Decongestants: The drug helps to clear the nose and is especially useful for seasonal allergies.

10. Allergy in animals

Allergy in animals

Exposure to animal dander (it is dead skin that is continually shed by the animals)/ animal urine/ saliva can cause human allergic reactions to animals. Examples of allergy symptoms include itchy eyes/ runny nose/ rash. These symptoms may take a severe turn to asthma/ rhinitis/ eczema.

Cat allergy

Cat allergy in humans is an allergic reaction to one or more allergens produced by the cats.

Symptoms  include:

  • Coughing
  • Chest tightening
  • Wheezing
  • Itching
  • Nasal congestion
  • Rash
  • Watery eyes
  • Chapped lips

Cat allergy treatment

Treatment includes developing certain healthy habits in addition to medications.

There is no treatment of allergic reactions to the cat. Immunotherapy may help increase tolerance. It includes getting allergy shots once or twice weekly (up to 6 months). Then monthly boosters for 3- 5 years may be continued.

Steam cleaners provide a chemical-free way of cleaning and killing dust mites/bacteria/cat allergens.

Quick wash after petting the cats is essential.

Dog allergy

Dogs produce a variety of proteins causing allergies. The highest concentration of proteins is in the dog’s saliva. When exposed to a dog’s saliva, allergy to dogs occurs with symptoms that include: rash/ hives/ watery eyes. However, in many cases, symptoms are mild. Veritably, dog dander (dog’s skin cell) in the air can linger for a long time and can stick to household items (such as furniture/ curtains/ bedding/ carpets). The best way to prevent and fight dog allergies is to avoid contact with the dog. If it is not possible, then the following home remedies may be applied.

10.2.1) Home remedy to treat dog allergy

  • Using a saline sinus rinse: Rinsing the nostrils using a mixture (components include; 3 teaspoonfuls iodine-free salt/1 teaspoonful baking soda/8-ounce warm water) will be very practical and helpful. It needs to use an ear dropper to put the solution into the nostril.    
  • Plant supplement: Like all other living beings, plants also need nutrients/vitamins/ supplements to grow, live, and survive. Taking certain plant supplements (such as that containing rosmarinic acid) may reduce allergy symptoms according to a research study (2014)
  • Cleaning more often the house (and its adjacent areas lying outside) during the winter season.
  • Washing hands with soaps after petting the animal.
  • Using a vacuum cleaner designed to trap and contain airborne allergies.

10.2.2) Medications to treat dog allergy

Treatment to cure dog allergies include

  • Antihistamine: It is a type of medicine to treat common allergy symptoms.
  • Nasal decongestants and nasal corticosteroids: These medications help reverse the inflammation caused by the immunes and relieve nasal congestion's
  • Immunotherapy: An allergist may treat severe or chronic allergy symptoms using immunotherapy. It is also known as allergy shots.
  • Other treatments: Many patients already who have asthma, can be exposed to pet allergens, which will inevitably worsen the symptoms. Under the situation, the doctor may prescribe inhalable corticosteroids or bronchodilators that keep the air passage open.

Conclusively,  allergy in animals embraces a vast area of multiple issues. Animal allergy is confined not only to a human allergic reaction to animals. There is also another side of the coin. Different allergy reactions (such as food allergy/ flea allergy /dust mite allergy) also hit and harm the animals as well.

Food allergy in animals

The most common cause of food allergy in the dogs include: beef/ mutton/ wheat/ corn/ soy/ dairy products/eggs/chicken. Occasionally, chemicals (such as preservatives/ additives/  food dyes  also play a key role.)

Flea allergy in animals

FAD (Flea Allergy Dermatitis) is an eczematous itchy skin disease of dogs and cats. Affected animals develop allergic reactions to chemicals existing in the flea saliva.

Symptoms Include:

  • Erythema (redness)
  • Bumps
  • Pustules (pus-filled bumps)

Dust mite allergy in animals

Hypersensitivity to house dust mites is a common health problem for dogs and cats. House dust mites are microscopic. They feed on animal (as well as human) dander skin scales and hair. It is often impossible to eliminate the insects from the environment (inside or outside the house) to save an allergic patient (man or animal)

11. Key global information - allergy

Key global information - allergy

  • Of all allergies, food allergy is most common. And milk allergy is the most common food allergy (followed by egg allergy). 5% among the children and 8% among the adults are affected by food allergies. And these percentages are rising globally.
  • Among the children, milk allergy is the most common food allergy (followed by egg allergy).
  • Egg white allergy is found more common as compared to egg yolk allergy.
  • Most allergens (causing eye allergies) are airborne.
  • Peanut allergy affects around  4%-8% (among the children)  and  1%- 2%  (among the adults).
  • More than 50 million people in the USA have some form of allergy.
  • In the USA,  nut allergy is widespread and affects around 1% of people.

12. Concluding remark

Concluding remark

Symptoms of allergies get worse at night. Because during the day time, pollen's are pushed into the air by warmer temperature. But they become healthy and active at night. If one suffers from seasonal pollen allergy, this could be why one sneezes more at night.

Patients who are more prone to asthma. May have more exacerbations of asthma symptoms if the allergies are not treated well in time. In that case, it may adversely affect the quality of life. Negligence delay in treatment of allergies can also trigger sinus and ear infections since mucus is a suitable breeding ground for viruses and bacteria.

13. TIPS


  • A= ALLERGEN (is usually a harmless substance triggering an allergic reaction)
  • L=  LOW (humidity is a treatment procedure for seasonal allergic attack)
  • L=  LASTS (throughout the seasons are eye allergies) 
  • E=  EGG ( allergy is the 2nd most cause of food allergy after milk)
  • R= Respiratory (problem and cardiac arrest are two rare, but severe allergic reactions )
  • G= GENETIC (and environmental factors mostly affect allergic reactions)
  • Y= YOLK (of the egg is usually less allergic than egg white)

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